Edgewall Software

Changes between Version 1 and Version 2 of TracFastCgi


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Timestamp:
Dec 10, 2015 6:49:38 AM (2 years ago)
Author:
trac
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  • TracFastCgi

    v1 v2  
    1 = Trac with FastCGI =
    2 
    3 Since version 0.9, Trac supports being run through the [http://www.fastcgi.com/ FastCGI] interface. Like [wiki:TracModPython mod_python], this allows Trac to remain resident, and is faster than external CGI interfaces which must start a new process for each request. However, unlike mod_python, it is able to support [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/suexec.html SuEXEC]. Additionally, it is supported by much wider variety of web servers.
    4 
    5 == Simple Apache configuration ==
    6 {{{
     1= Trac with FastCGI
     2
     3[[TracGuideToc]]
     4[[PageOutline(2-5, Contents, floated)]]
     5
     6[http://www.fastcgi.com/ FastCGI] interface allows Trac to remain resident much like with [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] or [wiki:TracModWSGI mod_wsgi]. It is faster than external CGI interfaces which must start a new process for each request. Additionally, it is supported by a much wider variety of web servers.
     7
     8Note that unlike mod_python, FastCGI supports [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/suexec.html Apache SuEXEC], ie run with different permissions than the web server runs with. `mod_wsgi` supports the `WSGIDaemonProcess` with user / group parameters to achieve the same effect.
     9
     10'''Note for Windows:''' Trac's FastCGI does not run under Windows, as Windows does not implement `Socket.fromfd`, which is used by `_fcgi.py`. If you want to connect to IIS, you may want to try [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp AJP]/[trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp ISAPI].
     11
     12== Apache configuration
     13
     14There are two FastCGI modules commonly available for Apache: `mod_fastcgi` and `mod_fcgid` (preferred). The latter is more up-to-date.
     15
     16The following sections focus on the FCGI specific setup, see also [wiki:TracModWSGI#ConfiguringAuthentication] for configuring the authentication in Apache.
     17
     18Regardless of which cgi module is used, be sure the web server has executable permissions on the cgi-bin folder. While FastCGI will throw specific permissions errors, mod_fcgid will throw an ambiguous error if this has not been done: `Connection reset by peer: mod_fcgid: error reading data from FastCGI server`.
     19
     20=== Set up with `mod_fastcgi`
     21
     22`mod_fastcgi` uses `FastCgiIpcDir` and `FastCgiConfig` directives that should be added to an appropriate Apache configuration file:
     23{{{#!apache
    724# Enable fastcgi for .fcgi files
    825# (If you're using a distro package for mod_fcgi, something like
     
    1532}}}
    1633
    17 You can either setup the `TRAC_ENV` as an overall default:
    18 {{{
     34Setting `FastCgiIpcDir` is optional if the default is suitable. Note that the `LoadModule` line must be after the `IfModule` group.
     35
     36Configure `ScriptAlias` or similar options as described in TracCgi, but calling `trac.fcgi` instead of `trac.cgi`.
     37
     38Add the following to the Apache configuration file (below the `FastCgiIpcDir` line) if you intend to set up the `TRAC_ENV` as an overall default:
     39{{{#!apache
    1940FastCgiConfig -initial-env TRAC_ENV=/path/to/env/trac
    2041}}}
    2142
    22 Or you can serve multiple Trac projects in a directory like:
    23 {{{
     43Alternatively, you can serve multiple Trac projects in a directory by adding this:
     44{{{#!apache
    2445FastCgiConfig -initial-env TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR=/parent/dir/of/projects
    2546}}}
    2647
    27 Configure `ScriptAlias` or similar options as described in TracCgi, but calling `trac.fcgi` instead of `trac.cgi`.
    28 
    29 == Simple Lighttpd Configuration ==
    30 
    31 The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lighttpd].
    32 
    33 lighttpd is a secure, fast, compliant and very flexible web-server that has been optimized for high-performance
    34 environments.  It has a very low memory footprint compared to other web servers and takes care of CPU load.
    35 
    36 For using `trac.fcgi` with lighttpd add the following to your lighttpd.conf:
    37 {{{
     48=== Set up with `mod_fcgid`
     49
     50Configure `ScriptAlias` (see TracCgi for details), but call `trac.fcgi` instead of `trac.cgi`:
     51{{{#!apache
     52ScriptAlias /trac /path/to/www/trac/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi/
     53}}}
     54
     55Note the slash at the end.
     56
     57To set up Trac environment for `mod_fcgid` it is necessary to use `DefaultInitEnv` directive. It cannot be used in `Directory` or `Location` context, so if you need to support multiple projects, try the alternative environment setup below:
     58{{{#!apache
     59DefaultInitEnv TRAC_ENV /path/to/env/trac/
     60}}}
     61
     62=== Alternative environment setup
     63
     64A better method to specify the path to the Trac environment is to embed the path into `trac.fcgi` script itself. That doesn't require configuration of the server environment variables, works for both [trac:FastCgi] modules as well as for [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lighttpd] and CGI:
     65{{{#!python
     66import os
     67os.environ['TRAC_ENV'] = "/path/to/projectenv"
     68}}}
     69
     70or:
     71{{{#!python
     72import os
     73os.environ['TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR'] = "/path/to/project/parent/dir"
     74}}}
     75
     76With this method different projects can be supported by using different `.fcgi` scripts with different `ScriptAliases`.
     77
     78See [https://coderanger.net/~coderanger/httpd/fcgi_example.conf this fcgid example config] which uses a !ScriptAlias directive with trac.fcgi with a trailing / like this:
     79{{{#!apache
     80ScriptAlias / /srv/tracsite/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi/
     81}}}
     82
     83== Cherokee Configuration
     84
     85Configuring [http://cherokee-project.com/ Cherokee] with Trac is straightforward, if you spawn Trac as an SCGI process. You can either start it manually, or better yet, automatically by letting Cherokee spawn the server whenever it is down.
     86
     87First set up an information source in cherokee-admin with a local interpreter:
     88
     89{{{
     90Host:
     91localhost:4433
     92
     93Interpreter:
     94/usr/bin/tracd —single-env —daemonize —protocol=scgi —hostname=localhost —port=4433 /path/to/project/
     95}}}
     96
     97If the port was not reachable, the interpreter command would be launched. Note that, in the definition of the information source, you will have to manually launch the spawner if you use a ''Remote host'' as ''Information source'' instead of a ''Local interpreter''.
     98
     99After doing this, we will just have to create a new rule managed by the SCGI handler to access Trac. It can be created in a new virtual server, trac.example.net for instance, and will only need two rules. The '''default''' one will use the SCGI handler associated to the previously created information source.
     100The second rule will be there to serve the few static files needed to correctly display the Trac interface. Create it as ''Directory rule'' for ''/common'' and just set it to the ''Static files'' handler and with a ''Document root'' that points to the appropriate files: ''$TRAC_LOCAL/htdocs/'' (where $TRAC_LOCAL is a directory defined by the user or the system administrator to place local Trac resources).
     101
     102'''Note:''' If the tracd process fails to start up, and Cherokee displays a 503 error page, you might be missing the [http://trac.saddi.com/flup python-flup] package ([trac:#9903]). Python-flup is a dependency which provides Trac with SCGI capability. You can install it on Debian based systems with:
     103{{{#!sh
     104sudo apt-get install python-flup
     105}}}
     106
     107== Lighttpd Configuration
     108
     109The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.lighttpd.net/ Lighttpd].
     110
     111Lighttpd is a secure, fast, compliant and very flexible web-server that has been optimized for high-performance environments. It has a very low memory footprint compared to other web servers and takes care of CPU load.
     112
     113For using `trac.fcgi`(prior to 0.11) / fcgi_frontend.py (0.11) with Lighttpd add the following to your lighttpd.conf:
     114{{{
     115#var.fcgi_binary="/usr/bin/python /path/to/fcgi_frontend.py" # 0.11 if installed with easy_setup, it is inside the egg directory
     116var.fcgi_binary="/path/to/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi" # 0.10 name of prior fcgi executable
    38117fastcgi.server = ("/trac" =>
     118   
    39119                   ("trac" =>
    40120                     ("socket" => "/tmp/trac-fastcgi.sock",
    41                       "bin-path" => "/path/to/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi",
     121                      "bin-path" => fcgi_binary,
    42122                      "check-local" => "disable",
    43123                      "bin-environment" =>
     
    48128}}}
    49129
    50 Note that you will need to add a new entry to `fastcgi.server` for each separate Trac instance that you wish to run. Alternatively, you may use the `TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR` variable instead of `TRAC_ENV` as described  above.
    51 
    52 Other important information like [http://trac.lighttpd.net/trac/wiki/TracInstall this updated TracInstall page], [wiki:TracCgi#MappingStaticResources and this] are useful for non-fastcgi specific installation aspects.
    53 
    54 Relaunch lighttpd, and browse to `http://yourhost.example.org/trac` to access Trac.
     130Note that you will need to add a new entry to `fastcgi.server` for each separate Trac instance that you wish to run. Alternatively, you may use the `TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR` variable instead of `TRAC_ENV` as described above, and you may set one of the two in `trac.fcgi` instead of in `lighttpd.conf` using `bin-environment`, as in the section above on Apache configuration.
     131
     132Note that Lighttpd has a bug related to 'SCRIPT_NAME' and 'PATH_INFO' when the uri of fastcgi.server is '/' instead of '/trac' in this example (see [trac:#2418]). This is fixed in Lighttpd 1.5, and under Lighttpd 1.4.23 or later the workaround is to add `"fix-root-scriptname" => "enable"` as a parameter of fastcgi.server.
     133
     134For using two projects with lighttpd add the following to your `lighttpd.conf`:
     135{{{
     136fastcgi.server = ("/first" =>
     137                   ("first" =>
     138                    ("socket" => "/tmp/trac-fastcgi-first.sock",
     139                     "bin-path" => fcgi_binary,
     140                     "check-local" => "disable",
     141                     "bin-environment" =>
     142                       ("TRAC_ENV" => "/path/to/projenv-first")
     143                    )
     144                  ),
     145                  "/second" =>
     146                    ("second" =>
     147                    ("socket" => "/tmp/trac-fastcgi-second.sock",
     148                     "bin-path" => fcgi_binary,
     149                     "check-local" => "disable",
     150                     "bin-environment" =>
     151                       ("TRAC_ENV" => "/path/to/projenv-second")
     152                    )
     153                  )
     154                )
     155}}}
     156
     157Note that the field values are different. If you prefer setting the environment variables in the `.fcgi` scripts, then copy/rename `trac.fcgi`, eg to `first.fcgi` and `second.fcgi`, and reference them in the above settings.
     158Note that the above will result in different processes in any event, even if both are running from the same `trac.fcgi` script.
     159
     160{{{#!div class=important
     161'''Note:''' The order in which the server.modules are loaded is very important: if mod_auth is not loaded '''before''' mod_fastcgi, then the server will fail to authenticate the user.
     162}}}
     163
     164For authentication you should enable mod_auth in lighttpd.conf 'server.modules', select auth.backend and auth rules:
     165{{{
     166server.modules              = (
     167...
     168  "mod_auth",
     169...
     170)
     171
     172auth.backend               = "htpasswd"
     173
     174# Separated password files for each project
     175# See "Conditional Configuration" in
     176# http://trac.lighttpd.net/trac/file/branches/lighttpd-merge-1.4.x/doc/configuration.txt
     177
     178$HTTP["url"] =~ "^/first/" {
     179  auth.backend.htpasswd.userfile = "/path/to/projenv-first/htpasswd.htaccess"
     180}
     181$HTTP["url"] =~ "^/second/" {
     182  auth.backend.htpasswd.userfile = "/path/to/projenv-second/htpasswd.htaccess"
     183}
     184
     185# Enable auth on trac URLs, see
     186# http://trac.lighttpd.net/trac/file/branches/lighttpd-merge-1.4.x/doc/authentication.txt
     187
     188auth.require = ("/first/login" =>
     189                ("method"  => "basic",
     190                 "realm"   => "First project",
     191                 "require" => "valid-user"
     192                ),
     193                "/second/login" =>
     194                ("method"  => "basic",
     195                 "realm"   => "Second project",
     196                 "require" => "valid-user"
     197                )
     198               )
     199
     200}}}
     201
     202Note that Lighttpd (v1.4.3) stops if the password file doesn't exist.
     203
     204Note that Lighttpd doesn't support 'valid-user' in versions prior to 1.3.16.
     205
     206Conditional configuration is also useful for mapping static resources, ie serving out images and CSS directly instead of through FastCGI:
     207{{{
     208# Aliasing functionality is needed
     209server.modules += ("mod_alias")
     210
     211# Set up an alias for the static resources
     212alias.url = ("/trac/chrome/common" => "/usr/share/trac/htdocs")
     213
     214# Use negative lookahead, matching all requests that ask for any resource under /trac, EXCEPT in
     215# /trac/chrome/common, and use FastCGI for those
     216$HTTP["url"] =~ "^/trac(?!/chrome/common)" {
     217# Even if you have other fastcgi.server declarations for applications other than Trac, do NOT use += here
     218fastcgi.server = ("/trac" =>
     219                   ("trac" =>
     220                     ("socket" => "/tmp/trac-fastcgi.sock",
     221                      "bin-path" => fcgi_binary,
     222                      "check-local" => "disable",
     223                      "bin-environment" =>
     224                        ("TRAC_ENV" => "/path/to/projenv")
     225                     )
     226                   )
     227                 )
     228}
     229}}}
     230
     231The technique can be easily adapted for use with multiple projects by creating aliases for each of them, and wrapping the fastcgi.server declarations inside conditional configuration blocks.
     232
     233Also there is another way to handle multiple projects and it uses `TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR` instead of `TRAC_ENV` as well as global authentication:
     234{{{
     235#  This is for handling multiple projects
     236  alias.url       = ( "/trac/" => "/path/to/trac/htdocs/" )
     237
     238  fastcgi.server += ("/projects"  =>
     239                      ("trac" =>
     240                        (
     241                          "socket" => "/tmp/trac.sock",
     242                          "bin-path" => fcgi_binary,
     243                          "check-local" => "disable",
     244                          "bin-environment" =>
     245                            ("TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR" => "/path/to/parent/dir/of/projects/" )
     246                        )
     247                      )
     248                    )
     249#And here starts the global auth configuration
     250  auth.backend = "htpasswd"
     251  auth.backend.htpasswd.userfile = "/path/to/unique/htpassword/file/trac.htpasswd"
     252  $HTTP["url"] =~ "^/projects/.*/login$" {
     253    auth.require = ("/" =>
     254                     (
     255                       "method"  => "basic",
     256                       "realm"   => "trac",
     257                       "require" => "valid-user"
     258                     )
     259                   )
     260  }
     261}}}
     262
     263Changing date/time format also supported by lighttpd over environment variable LC_TIME:
     264{{{
     265fastcgi.server = ("/trac" =>
     266                   ("trac" =>
     267                     ("socket" => "/tmp/trac-fastcgi.sock",
     268                      "bin-path" => fcgi_binary,
     269                      "check-local" => "disable",
     270                      "bin-environment" =>
     271                        ("TRAC_ENV" => "/path/to/projenv",
     272                        "LC_TIME" => "ru_RU")
     273                     )
     274                   )
     275                 )
     276}}}
     277
     278For details about languages specification see [trac:TracFaq TracFaq] question 2.13.
     279
     280Other important information like the [wiki:TracInstall#MappingStaticResources mapping static resources advices] are useful for non-fastcgi specific installation aspects.
     281
     282Relaunch Lighttpd and browse to `http://yourhost.example.org/trac` to access Trac.
     283
     284Note about running Lighttpd with reduced permissions: If nothing else helps and trac.fcgi doesn't start with Lighttpd settings `server.username = "www-data"`, `server.groupname = "www-data"`, then in the `bin-environment` section set `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` to the home directory of `www-data` or some other directory accessible to this account for writing.
     285
     286== !LiteSpeed Configuration
     287
     288The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.litespeedtech.com/ LiteSpeed].
     289
     290!LiteSpeed web server is an event-driven asynchronous Apache replacement designed from the ground-up to be secure, scalable, and operate with minimal resources. !LiteSpeed can operate directly from an Apache config file and is targeted for business-critical environments.
     291
     292 1. Please make sure you have a working install of a Trac project. Test install with "tracd" first.
     293 1. Create a Virtual Host for this setup. From now on we will refer to this vhost as !TracVhost. For this tutorial we will be assuming that your Trac project will be accessible via:
     294{{{
     295http://yourdomain.com/trac/
     296}}}
     297 1. Go "!TracVhost → External Apps" tab and create a new "External Application":
     298{{{
     299Name: MyTracFCGI       
     300Address: uds://tmp/lshttpd/mytracfcgi.sock
     301Max Connections: 10
     302Environment: TRAC_ENV=/fullpathto/mytracproject/ <--- path to root folder of trac project
     303Initial Request Timeout (secs): 30
     304Retry Timeout (secs): 0
     305Persistent Connection   Yes
     306Connection Keepalive Timeout: 30
     307Response Bufferring: No
     308Auto Start: Yes
     309Command: /usr/share/trac/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi  <--- path to trac.fcgi
     310Back Log: 50
     311Instances: 10
     312}}}
     313 1. Optional: If you need to use htpasswd based authentication. Go to "!TracVhost → Security" tab and create a new security Realm:
     314 {{{
     315DB Type: Password File
     316Realm Name: MyTracUserDB               <--- any name you wish and referenced later
     317User DB Location: /fullpathto/htpasswd <--- path to your htpasswd file
     318}}}
     319 If you don’t have a htpasswd file or don’t know how to create the entries within one, go to http://sherylcanter.com/encrypt.php, to generate the user:password combos.
     320 1. Go to "!PythonVhost → Contexts" and create a new FCGI Context:
     321 {{{
     322URI: /trac/                              <--- URI path to bind to python fcgi app we created   
     323Fast CGI App: [VHost Level] MyTractFCGI  <--- select the Trac fcgi extapp we just created
     324Realm: TracUserDB                        <--- only if (4) is set. select realm created in (4)
     325}}}
     326 1. Modify `/fullpathto/mytracproject/conf/trac.ini`:
     327 {{{
     328#find/set base_rul, url, and link variables
     329base_url = http://yourdomain.com/trac/ <--- base url to generate correct links to
     330url = http://yourdomain.com/trac/      <--- link of project
     331link = http://yourdomain.com/trac/     <--- link of graphic logo
     332}}}
     333 1. Restart !LiteSpeed: `lswsctrl restart`, and access your new Trac project at {{{http://yourdomain.com/trac/}}}.
     334
     335== Nginx Configuration
     336
     337[http://nginx.org/en/ Nginx] is able to communicate with FastCGI processes, but can not spawn them. So you need to start FastCGI server for Trac separately.
     338
     339 1. Nginx configuration with basic authentication handled by Nginx - confirmed to work on 0.6.32
     340 {{{#!nginx
     341    server {
     342        listen       10.9.8.7:443;
     343        server_name  trac.example;
     344
     345        ssl                  on;
     346        ssl_certificate      /etc/ssl/trac.example.crt;
     347        ssl_certificate_key  /etc/ssl/trac.example.key;
     348
     349        ssl_session_timeout  5m;
     350
     351        ssl_protocols  SSLv2 SSLv3 TLSv1;
     352        ssl_ciphers  ALL:!ADH:!EXPORT56:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv2:+EXP;
     353        ssl_prefer_server_ciphers   on;
     354
     355        # it makes sense to serve static resources through Nginx (or ``~ [/some/prefix]/chrome/(.*)``)
     356        location ~ /chrome/(.*) {
     357             alias /home/trac/instance/static/htdocs/$1;
     358        }
     359
     360        # You can copy this whole location to ``location [/some/prefix](/login)``
     361        # and remove the auth entries below if you want Trac to enforce
     362        # authorization where appropriate instead of needing to authenticate
     363        # for accessing the whole site.
     364        # (Or ``~ location /some/prefix(/.*)``.)
     365        location ~ (/.*) {
     366            auth_basic            "trac realm";
     367            auth_basic_user_file /home/trac/htpasswd;
     368
     369            # socket address
     370            fastcgi_pass   unix:/home/trac/run/instance.sock;
     371
     372            # python - wsgi specific
     373            fastcgi_param HTTPS on;
     374
     375            ## WSGI REQUIRED VARIABLES
     376            # WSGI application name - trac instance prefix.
     377            # (Or ``fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME  /some/prefix``.)
     378            fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        "";
     379            fastcgi_param  PATH_INFO          $1;
     380
     381            ## WSGI NEEDED VARIABLES - trac warns about them
     382            fastcgi_param  REQUEST_METHOD     $request_method;
     383            fastcgi_param  SERVER_NAME        $server_name;
     384            fastcgi_param  SERVER_PORT        $server_port;
     385            fastcgi_param  SERVER_PROTOCOL    $server_protocol;
     386            fastcgi_param  QUERY_STRING       $query_string;
     387
     388            # For Nginx authentication to work - do not forget to comment these
     389            # lines if not using Nginx for authentication
     390            fastcgi_param  AUTH_USER          $remote_user;
     391            fastcgi_param  REMOTE_USER        $remote_user;
     392
     393            # for ip to work
     394            fastcgi_param REMOTE_ADDR         $remote_addr;
     395
     396            # For attchments to work
     397            fastcgi_param    CONTENT_TYPE     $content_type;
     398            fastcgi_param    CONTENT_LENGTH   $content_length;
     399        }
     400    }
     401}}}
     402 1. Modified trac.fcgi:
     403 {{{#!python
     404#!/usr/bin/env python
     405import os
     406sockaddr = '/home/trac/run/instance.sock'
     407os.environ['TRAC_ENV'] = '/home/trac/instance'
     408
     409try:
     410     from trac.web.main import dispatch_request
     411     import trac.web._fcgi
     412
     413     fcgiserv = trac.web._fcgi.WSGIServer(dispatch_request,
     414          bindAddress = sockaddr, umask = 7)
     415     fcgiserv.run()
     416
     417except SystemExit:
     418    raise
     419except Exception, e:
     420    print 'Content-Type: text/plain\r\n\r\n',
     421    print 'Oops...'
     422    print
     423    print 'Trac detected an internal error:'
     424    print
     425    print e
     426    print
     427    import traceback
     428    import StringIO
     429    tb = StringIO.StringIO()
     430    traceback.print_exc(file=tb)
     431    print tb.getvalue()
     432
     433}}}
     434 1. Reload nginx and launch trac.fcgi:
     435 {{{#!sh
     436trac@trac.example ~ $ ./trac-standalone-fcgi.py
     437}}}
     438
     439The above assumes that:
     440 * There is a user named 'trac' for running Trac instances and keeping Trac environments in its home directory
     441 * `/home/trac/instance` contains a Trac environment
     442 * `/home/trac/htpasswd` contains authentication information
     443 * `/home/trac/run` is owned by the same group the Nginx runs under
     444  * and if your system is Linux the `/home/trac/run` has setgid bit set (`chmod g+s run`)
     445  * and patch from [trac:#7239] is applied, or you'll have to fix the socket file permissions every time
     446
     447Unfortunately Nginx does not support variable expansion in fastcgi_pass directive.
     448Thus it is not possible to serve multiple Trac instances from one server block.
     449
     450If you worry enough about security, run Trac instances under separate users.
     451
     452Another way to run Trac as a FCGI external application is offered in [trac:#6224].
    55453
    56454----
    57 See also TracCgi, TracModPython, TracInstall, TracGuide
     455See also: TracGuide, TracInstall, [wiki:TracModWSGI ModWSGI], [wiki:TracCgi CGI], [wiki:TracModPython ModPython], [trac:TracNginxRecipe TracNginxRecipe]