Edgewall Software
Version 31 (modified by cmlenz, 8 years ago)

Explain loader usage in Python API intro

Markup Templates

The most important feature provided by the Markup package is a template engine.

Templates are XML files of some kind (such as XHTML) that include processing directives (elements or attributes identified by a separate namespace) that affect how the template is rendered, and template expressions that are dynamically substituted by variable data.

This documentation is a work in progress and as of yet rather incomplete.

Note that Markup templates are very similar to  Kid templates, so you may want to read the awesome  language specification for Kid for a more comprehensive guide. There exist some substantial differences between Kid and Markup, but the set of directives is basically the same (except for py:extends and py:layout, which don't exist in Markup, and py:match, which uses XPath in Markup).

Table of Contents

  1. Python API
  2. Expressions
  3. Directives
    1. py:content
    2. py:replace
    3. py:attrs
    4. py:strip
    5. py:if
    6. py:choose / py:when / py:otherwise
    7. py:for
    8. py:def
    9. py:with
    10. py:match
  4. Includes
  5. Comments

Python API

The Python code required for templating with Markup is generally based on the following pattern:

  • Attain a Template object from a string or file object containing the template XML source. This can either be done directly, or through a TemplateLoader instance.
  • Call the generate() method of the template, passing any data that should be made available to the template as keyword arguments.
  • Serialize the resulting stream using its render() method.

For example:

from markup.template import Template

tmpl = Template('<h1>$title</h1>')
stream = tmpl.generate(title='Hello, world!')
print stream.render('xhtml')

That code would produce the following output:

<h1>Hello, world!</h1>

However, if you want includes to work, you should attain the template instance through a TemplateLoader, and load the template from a file:

from markup.template import TemplateLoader

loader = TemplateLoader([templates_dir])
tmpl = loader.load('test.html')
stream = tmpl.generate(title='Hello, world!')
print stream.render('xhtml')

See the API docs of the markup.template? and markup.core? modules for more details.

Expressions

Python expressions can be used in text and attribute values. An expression is substituted with the result of its evaluation against the template data. Expressions need to prefixed with a dollar sign ($) and usually enclosed in curly braces ({…}).

If the expression starts with a letter and contains only letters and digits, the curly braces may be omitted. In all other cases, the braces are required so that the template processors knows where the expression ends:

>>> from markup.template import Context, Template
>>> tmpl = Template('<em>${items[0].capitalize()} item</em>')
>>> print tmpl.generate(Context(items=['first', 'second']))
<em>First item</em>

Expressions support the full power of Python. In addition, it is possible to:

  • access items in a dictionary using “dotted notation” (i.e. as if they were attributes)
  • access attributes using item access (i.e. as if they were items in a dictionary)
>>> from markup.template import Context, Template
>>> tmpl = Template('<em>${dict.foo}</em>')
>>> print tmpl.generate(Context(dict={'foo': 'bar'}))
<em>bar</em>

Directives

Directives are elements and/or attributes in the template that are identified by the namespace http://markup.edgewall.org/. They can affect how the template is rendered in a number of ways: Markup provides directives for conditionals and looping, among others.

To use directives in a template, the namespace should be declared, which is usually done on the root element:

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"
      xmlns:py="http://markup.edgewall.org/"
      lang="en">
  ...
</html>

In this example, the default namespace is set to the XHTML namespace, and the namespace for Markup directives is bound to the prefix “py”.

All directives can be applied as attributes, and some can also be used as elements. The if directives for conditionals, for example, can be used in both ways:

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"
      xmlns:py="http://markup.edgewall.org/"
      lang="en">
  ...
  <div py:if="foo">
    <p>Bar</p>
  </div>
  ...
</html>

This is basically equivalent to the following:

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"
      xmlns:py="http://markup.edgewall.org/"
      lang="en">
  ...
  <py:if test="foo">
    <div>
      <p>Bar</p>
    </div>
  </py:if>
  ...
</html>

The rationale behind the second form is that directives do not always map naturally to elements in the template. In such cases, the py:strip directive can be used to strip off the unwanted element, or the directive can simply be used as an element.

py:content

This directive replaces any nested content with the result of evaluating the expression.

<ul>
  <li py:content="bar">Hello</li>
</ul>

Given bar='Bye' in the context data, this would produce:

<ul>
  <li>Bye</li>
</ul>

This directive can only be used as an attribute.

py:replace

This directive replaces the element itself with the result of evaluating the expression.

<div>
  <span py:replace="bar">Hello</span>
</div>

Given bar='Bye' in the context data, this would produce:

<div>
  Bye
</div>

This directive can only be used as an attribute.

py:attrs

This directive adds, modifies or removes attributes from the element.

<ul>
  <li py:attrs="foo">Bar</li>
</ul>

Given foo={'class': 'collapse'} in the template context, this would produce:

<ul>
  <li class="collapse">Bar</li>
</ul>

Attributes with the value None are omitted, so given foo={'class': None} in the context for the same template this would produce:

<ul>
  <li>Bar</li>
</ul>

This directive can only be used as an attribute.

py:strip

This directive conditionally strips the top-level element from the output. When the value of the py:strip attribute evaluates to True, the element is stripped from the output:

<div>
  <div py:strip="True"><b>foo</b></div>
</div>

This would be rendered as:

<div>
  <b>foo</b>
</div>

As a shorthand, if the value of the py:strip attribute is empty, that has the same effect as using a truth value (i.e. the element is stripped).

py:if

The element is only rendered if the expression evaluates to a truth value.

<div>
  <b py:if="foo">${bar}</b>
</div>

Given the data foo=True and bar='Hello' in the template context, this would produce:

<div>
  <b>Hello</b>
</div>

This directive can also be used as an element:

<div>
  <py:if test="foo">
    <b>${bar}</b>
  </py:if>
</div>

py:choose / py:when / py:otherwise

This set of directives provides advanced contional processing for rendering one of several alternatives. The first matching py:when directive will be rendered or, if no py:when directive matches, the py:otherwise directive will be rendered.

If the py:choose directive is empty the nested py:when directives will be tested for truth:

<div py:choose="">
  <span py:when="0 == 1">0</span>
  <span py:when="1 == 1">1</span>
  <span py:otherwise="">2</span>
</div>

This would produce the following output:

<div>
  <span>1</span>
</div>

If the py:choose directive contains an expression the nested py:when directives will be tested for equality to the parent py:choose value:

<div py:choose="1">
  <span py:when="0">0</span>
  <span py:when="1">1</span>
  <span py:otherwise="">2</span>
</div>

This would produce the following output:

<div>
  <span>1</span>
</div>

py:for

The element is repeated for every item in an iterable:

<ul>
  <li py:for="item in items">${item}</li>
</ul>

Given items=[1, 2, 3] in the context data, this would produce:

<ul>
  <li>1</li><li>2</li><li>3</li>
</ul>

This directive can also be used as an element:

<ul>
  <py:for each="item in items">
    <li>${item}</li>
  </py:for>
</ul>

py:def

The py:def directive can be used to create template functions, i.e. snippets of template code that have a name and optionally some parameters, and that can be inserted in other places.

<div>
  <p py:def="greeting(name)" class="greeting">
    Hello, ${name}!
  </p>
  ${greeting('world')}
  ${greeting('everyone else')}
</div>

The above would be rendered to:

<div>
  <p class="greeting">
    Hello, world!
  </p>
  <p class="greeting">
    Hello, everyone else!
  </p>
</div>

If a template function doesn't require parameters, it can be defined as well as called without the parenthesis. For example:

<div>
  <p py:def="greeting" class="greeting">
    Hello, world!
  </p>
  ${greeting}
</div>

The above would be rendered to:

<div>
  <p class="greeting">
    Hello, world!
  </p>
</div>

This directive can also be used as an element:

<div>
  <py:def function="greeting(name)">
    <p class="greeting">Hello, ${name}!</p>
  </py:def>
</div>

py:with

The py:with directive lets you assign expressions to variables, which can be used to make expressions inside the directive less verbose and more efficient. For example, if you need use the expression author.posts more than once, and that actually results in a database query, assigning the results to a variable using this directive would probably help.

For example:

<div>
  <span py:with="y=7; z=x+10">$x $y $z</span>
</div>

Given x=42 in the context data, this would produce:

<div>
  <span>42 7 52</span>
</div>

This directive can also be used as an element:

<div>
  <py:with vars="y=7; z=x+10">$x $y $z</py:with>
</div>

Note that if a variable of the same name already existed outside of the scope of the py:with directive, it will not be overwritten. Instead, it will have the same value it had prior to the py:with assignment. Effectively, this means that variables are immutable in Markup.

py:match

This directive defines a match template: given an XPath expression, it replaces any element in the template that matches the expression with its own content.

For example, the match template defined in the following template matches any element with the tag name “greeting”:

<div>
  <span py:match="greeting">
    Hello ${select('@name')}
  </span>
  <greeting name="Dude" />
</div>

This would result in the following output:

<div>
  <span>
    Hello Dude
  </span>
</div>

Inside the body of a py:match directive, the select(path) function is made available so that parts or all of the original element can be incorporated in the output of the match template. See MarkupStream#UsingXPath for more information about this function.

This directive can also be used as an element:

<div>
  <py:match path="greeting">
    <span>Hello ${select('@name')}</span>
  </py:match>
  <greeting name="Dude" />
</div>

Includes

To reuse common snippets of template code, you can include other files using  XInclude.

For this, you need to declare the XInclude namespace (commonly bound to the prefix "xi") and use the <xi:include> element where you want the external file to be pulled in:

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"
      xmlns:py="http://markup.edgewall.org/"
      xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude">
  <xi:include href="base.html" />
  ...
</html>

Include paths are relative to the filename of the template currently being processed. So if the example above was in the file "myapp/index.html" (relative to the template search path), the XInclude processor would look for the included file at "myapp/base.html". You can also use Unix-style relative paths, for example "../base.html" to look in the parent directory.

Any content included this way is inserted into the generated output instead of the <xi:include> element. The included template sees the same context data. Match templates and template functions in the included template are also available to the including template after the point it was included.

By default, an error will be raised if an included file is not found. If that's not what you want, you can specify fallback content that should be used if the include fails. For example, to to make the include above fail silently, you'd write:

  <xi:include href="base.html"><xi:fallback /></xi:include>

See the  XInclude specification for more about fallback content. Note though that Markup currently only supports a small subset of XInclude.

Incudes in Markup are fully dynamic: Just like normal attributes, the href attribute accepts expressions, and template directives can be used on the <xi:include /> element just as on any other element, meaning you can do things like conditional includes:

  <xi:include href="${name}.html" py:if="not in_popup"
              py:for="name in ('foo', 'bar', 'baz')" />

Comments

Normal XML/HTML comment syntax can be used in templates:

<!-- this is a comment -->

However, such comments get passed through the processing pipeline and are by default included in the final output. If that's not desired, prefix the comment text with an exclamation mark:

<!-- !this is a comment too, but one that will be stripped from the output -->

Note that it does not matter whether there's whitespace before or after the exclamation mark, so the above could also be written as follows:

<!--! this is a comment too, but one that will be stripped from the output -->

See also: MarkupGuide?, MarkupRecipes?